Prostatitis: symptoms, treatment, prevention

male prostate

Prostatitis in men is an inflammatory process involving prostate tissue. The disease is accompanied by pain that occurs in the lower back, perineum, in the pelvis. The main manifestations are pain in the perineum and dysfunction of the lower urinary tract.

Among all urological diseases, urologists most often meet with prostatitis. It can develop unexpectedly (acutely) against a general health background, or continue for a long time, with periods of deterioration and remission, indicating a chronic course. Moreover, the second variant of the disease is diagnosed more frequently.

The disease is independent, and can also be combined with prostate hyperplasia or prostate cancer.

Reasons for development

Inflammation does not appear by itself. The causes of prostatitis can be divided into bacterial and non -bacterial.

Acute infectious variants usually occur in men under the age of 35 as a result of damage to the prostate gland by gram -negative bacteria - Escherichia coli, Proteus, Enterobacter. Also, inflammation occurs as a result of infection with sexually transmitted infections - gonorrhea, chlamydia. In the chronic form, there are many more causes and the list will include atypical microbes.

Factors that provoke the development of bacterial variants are:

  • unprotected sex;
  • AIDS or HIV infection;
  • diarrhea or constipation;
  • anal sexual intercourse;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • inactive sex life;
  • diabetes;
  • hypothermia;
  • violations in intimate hygiene.

Non -infectious prostatitis in its chronic form is detected in men who complain of prolonged pain in the genitals, but tests do not diagnose bacteria that can cause inflammation.

The exact cause of the development of this type of prostatitis has not been studied, but the provoking factors are:

  • emotional disorders;
  • autoimmune diseases;
  • increased physical activity;
  • lack of normal sexual life;
  • work related to weight lifting;
  • chronic stress;
  • congestion in prostate tissue;
  • previously confirmed fibrotic changes in the prostate (according to TRUS results).

It is believed that an inactive sex life, unprotected sex, hypothermia play an important role in the appearance of the disease. Symptoms of prostatitis at least once in a lifetime affect 50% of the entire male population on the planet.

Symptoms of acute prostatitis

Acute prostatitis occurs in several stages, which will move away from each other, if you do not contact a specialist and stop the progression of the disease in time.

The first stage is called acute catarrhal prostatitis. It starts with complaints of frequent painful urination. In the lower back and sacrum, as well as in the perineum, a slight pain appears at first, which rapidly increases.

Without treatment, the second stage occurs - acute follicles. During this time, the pain becomes very strong, it radiates to the anus, and worsens during defecation. Urination is very difficult, sometimes there is acute urinary retention. The temperature does not exceed 38 degrees and only in rare cases can be higher.

Acute parenchymal prostatitis is expressed in severe intoxication, the temperature reaches 38 ° C and above, chills appear. Urinary retention is often observed, sharp, throbbing pain in the perineum appears, defecation is difficult.

Symptoms of chronic prostatitis

Sometimes chronic prostatitis occurs against the background of acute inflammatory processes. This is a separate disease in which there is a major chronic course that develops over a long period of time.

Often, the chronic course begins as a complication of inflammatory processes caused by various infectious agents - chlamydia, Trichomonas, gonococcus. But obvious manifestations are very rare, more often the disease occurs with minor pain during urination or in the perineum, with small discharge from the urethra. Often these manifestations go unnoticed even by the patient for a very long time.

The symptoms of prostatitis in men can occur in different ways, but they are all combined into three groups - pain syndrome, urinary disorders, problems with sexual life. Prostate tissue does not have receptors, therefore, they cannot provide a painful sensation. They appear when inflammation begins to move to the pelvic organs, which are heavily depleted. Pain in patients can vary - from almost insignificant discomfort to strong and intense, which disrupts sleep and normal lifestyle. Pain can radiate to the sacrum, scrotum, lower back, perineum, so self -diagnosis is useless here.

Problems with urination begin at this time when the prostate increases in volume and begins to squeeze the urethra with a decrease in the lumen of the ureter. There is a frequent urge to urinate, a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder. Usually, such phenomena are expressed at the beginning of the disease, in its early stages, then they are compensated by the body, but at a later stage, without adequate treatment, they reappear.

Problems with potency in men can also be expressed in different ways. Patients complain of worsening erections, accelerated ejaculation, decreased sexual arousal. Gradually, sexual disorders become more pronounced, and at a later stage, the symptoms of prostatitis are augmented by impotence.

Possible Complications

In the inflammatory process in the prostate gland, neighboring organs are also involved in the pathological process. This can lead to various consequences of prostatitis, for example:

  • vesiculitis;
  • posterior urethritis or colicitis;
  • the abscess of the gland itself;
  • sclerosis or fibrosis of the prostate;
  • cysts and prostate stones;
  • infertility;
  • ejaculatory disorders;
  • erectile dysfunction.

To prevent the development of these serious complications, at the first symptoms of prostatitis and prostate adenoma, you should contact a urologist.

Diagnostics

Urologists deal with the diagnosis and therapy of any form of prostatitis. If a tumor is suspected, the patient may be referred for consultation with an oncologist. In chronic long -term prostatitis, which is difficult to treat, consultation with an immunologist may be necessary.

Clinical pictures of patient characteristics and complaints help make an accurate diagnosis quickly. The list of mandatory studies in the diagnosis of prostatitis looks like this:

  1. Urine bacteriological cultures.
  2. Analysis of prostate secretion for microflora and sensitivity to antibiotics.
  3. Examination of the prostate rectum.
  4. Ultrasound of the prostate gland, which allows to identify tumors, cysts, adenomas, as well as to distinguish prostatitis from other urological and surgical diseases.
  5. Spermogram to rule out infertility.

It is difficult to determine the cause of the disease independently, and even more so to cure it. Therefore, to avoid the development of serious complications and in the future not remain infertile, at the first signs of the disease, a man should immediately contact a urologist.

Treatment

Patients with acute prostatitis identified without the development of complications were treated on an outpatient basis. Only with symptoms of severe intoxication and suspected purulent process, hospitalization was carried out.

Antibiotics are the drug of choice to fight inflammation. It is also used in the form of chronic bacteria. The drug is selected individually, taken as a course for 4-6 weeks. In severe cases, antibacterial agents are given intravenously, in all other cases - orally, in the form of capsules or tablets.

Another drug used for prostatitis is alpha1-blockers, which are prescribed in the presence of urine residue confirmed by ultrasound. They help facilitate urination, relax the prostate and bladder muscles. NSAIDs help relieve pain.

Treatment of prostatitis is only carried out thoroughly and consistently. In addition to taking medication, the doctor will prescribe a course of prostate massage, and physiotherapy is used to improve blood circulation in this organ. Surgical treatment is used only when abscesses and pus of the seminal vesicles appear.

Prediction and prevention

The acute form without treatment often becomes chronic, which periodically worsens. Full recovery is not always possible, however, with timely access to a doctor and taking all prescribed medications, discomfort, urinary problems and pain can be eliminated.

Self -treatment at home and the use of folk methods can often be life threatening.

To prevent prostatitis, it is recommended to avoid hypothermia, empty the bladder in a timely manner, limit the consumption of coffee, spices and alcohol, and remain sexually active for as long as possible.